What is Organic Farming?
Organic farming in simple terms can be defined as a type of farming method, which is a new system of agriculture, that repairs, maintains, and helps to improve the ecological balance compared to conventional farming
It can be defined as an organic process that uses biological/natural fertilizers and pest control obtained from plant or animal waste. Organic farming was started to counter the rapid use of chemical pesticides and toxic fertilizers which were introduced after the Green Revolution.
Let us take a look at what are the Types of Organic Farming? How many types of organic farming are there, also which are the best organic farming techniques out there.
There are basically two types of organic farming:
- Integrated organic farming
- Pure organic farming
Now, let’s see different types of organic farming and their practices with information.
1. Integrated organic farming
Pest management and nutrients management are integrated with each other so that they are able to fulfill the ecological requirements and the economic demands.
Integrated organic farming system
IOFS, Integrated organic farming system was developed for the benefit of farmers by the Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare.
It is a model, which includes providing crop, cropping systems, and 1 acre of land. This model was developed under the scheme AL-NPOF (All India Network Program on Organic Farming).
Integrated organic farming is performed by different states in India with different crops for each state
Meghalaya – 1 acre of land for IOFS model is used for crops & fruits such as Rice-lentil, Rice-pea, Maize, Soybean, Assam lemon, Papaya, Peach, Guava
Tamil Nadu – 1 acre of land for IOFS model is used for crops & fruits such as Okra, Coriander, Maize, Banana, Cotton
Sikkim – 1.25 acre of land for IOFS model is used for crops & fruits such as Rice, Pea, Potato, Toria, Maize, Soybean, Radish, Broccoli.
Kerala – Crops such as Turmeric, Coconut, Yam, Fodder are included in the IOFS model
2. Pure organic farming
Pure organic farming as the name suggests, is the most natural way of organic farming which uses pure means by avoiding all toxic, unnatural chemicals. Only using fertilizer and pesticide which are obtained from natural resources, for example, bone meal or blood meal.
Also, check out HISTORY OF ORGANIC FARMING
So, above were the few types of organic farming. Check out what are the benefits of eating organic food
Methods of Organic Farming
In this type of farming, different methods of organic farming are used, of which 6 basic methods listed below.
Organic Agricultural methods are worldwide regulated and legally enforced by many nations, based on the standards set by the IFOAM (International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements)
Organic Agriculture is a system that helps sustain the health of the soils, land, and ecosystem.
9 METHODS OF ORGANIC FARMING
Let us see, what are the types and methods of farming organically.
Composting is an organic farming technique, where recycled organic matter consists of nutrients that help in the improvement of soil quality and crop production. It is the best natural fertilizer in organic farming.
2. Controlling Pests/Organisms
While farming, the lands are open for many organisms such as arthropods (i.e. Insects, mites), fungi, and bacteria.
Few of these organisms are beneficial for crop production and helps to improve the soil quality and its fertility. However, we should also control the growth and population of organisms that affect the land.
Farmers should use natural pesticides, herbicides to control the pests/organisms in a biological manner.
- Sanitation to remove pests
- Using row covers to protect crops during pest periods (migration)
- encouraging beneficial organisms
- using insect traps to monitor and control insects
So, by practicing such methods are there any advantages over conventional farming methods.
3. Crop diversity
Organic farming supports Crop Diversity. Crop Diversity is a variance in genetic and phenotypic characteristics of plants used in agriculture.
Earlier, farmers used to practice monoculture, in which only one kind of crop was cultivated in that particular location.
Polyculture is now in a trend where a variety of crops can be easily grown in a particular area. Polyculture also helps the soil micro-organisms to boost the production of the crops.
benefits of organic farming to farmers as well as people. Economic Stability of Organic Farming
4. Crop Rotation
Crop rotation is one of the most important techniques, where the same kinds of crops are not cultivated every year as this may reduce the amount of nutrients in the soil.
Farmers instead grow different types of crops every year, which helps to improve the soil because different plants help to improve the soil quality with important nutrients.
This also helps to keep most of the pests and harmful organisms away as their habitat is being disrupted.
5. Green Manure
Green manure basically means dead plants that turn into the soil as time passes away. These plants in-turn helps to improve the quality and fertility of the soil by providing necessary ingredients to the soil. Organic farming uses different types of manures
Also, Check out vegetables that can be easily grown in a pot.
Livestock basically means to increase and improve the sustainability of the agricultural land by the addition of animals such as cows, chickens, horses, and more.
These provide animals with natural feed and good living conditions, it also helps to raise livestock and poultry for dairy, eggs, meat products.
Organic livestock must only be treated with medicines and in natural manners. No drugs or other chemicals should be used in organic farming to promote growth, their feeds must be also organic and pastured.
7. Soil Management
Organic farming uses organic matter such as natural fertilizers and nutrients. Soil management is one of the most important factors in organic farming.
After a specific amount of cultivations, the quality of soil gets reduced. Hence losses its necessary nutrients.
Thus Organic Farming helps the gain of nutrients and improves the quality of the soil by natural means. This is the reason why, organic farming uses fertilizer and pesticides which are obtained from natural resources, for example, bone meal or blood meal.
8. Weed Management
Weeds are also known as wild grass, they are the unwanted plants that grow with the crops, and due to this, they consume most of the natural nutrients from the soil, which affects the quality of crop production.
Organic Farming helps to reduce the growth of weeds rather than removing them. Weed management is an important factor to help improve the quality of crops.
Weed management consists of two techniques
1. Mulching – In this type of technique, farmers use plant residue or films of plastic to stop the growth of unwanted weeds on the soil surface
2. Mowing or Cutting – This is the process where farmers work for the removal of wild grass, and minimizes its growth.
9. Genetic Modification
The above methods help crop production, soil fertility, and good quality of the land by natural means. Thus genetic modification must be kept away from the field of organic farming.
Material, Methods, Equipment used in organic farming
Due to the increasing use of chemicals, this affects the land as well as human life. Organic farming is the way which will help the environment, and reduce pollution. Farmers should reduce using non-organic farming methods.