What is Organic Farming?
Organic farming in simple terms can be defined as a type of farming method, which is a new system of agriculture, that repairs, maintains, and helps to improve the ecological balance compared to conventional farming. In case you want to know more.
As per Wikipedia, Bio-intensive agriculture is an organic agricultural system that focuses on achieving maximum yields from a minimum area of land, while simultaneously increasing biodiversity and sustaining the fertility of the soil. The goal of the method is long term sustainability on a closed system basis. It is particularly effective for backyard gardeners and smallholder farmers in developing countries, and also has been used successfully on small-scale commercial farms.
Biointensive cropping strategies are usually labour-intensive.
Permaculture is an approach to land management that adopts arrangements observed in natural ecosystems. It has many branches including ecological design, ecological engineering, etc. It also includes water resource management that develops sustainable architecture and a regenerative, self-maintained habitat.
Permaculture has gained widespread visibility throughout the world as an agricultural philosophy.
Crop Rotation is defined as changing the type of crop grown on a piece of land from year to year. It is a very important factor of eco-farming since it helps maintain soil health. It is also a good way to control pests and has some more added benefits. There are majorly 2 methods of crop rotation, cyclic and non-cyclic. In cyclic crop rotation, you have a set of crops that you grow every year, turn by turn in a continuous loop. Non-cyclic rotation involves growing random crops every year, whichever you feel is needed.
Good crop rotation requires long-term planning. One needs to carefully consider factors like weather, market, labour expense, etc. to form a good plan. The design of crop rotation is the key to soil nutrients, weed, pests, and disease management.
In zero tillage, the soil is left undisturbed from harvest to planting, except for nutrient supply. Crops are potted in a narrow seedbed or in-row chisels. Weeds are controlled using herbicides.
Conservation tillage maintains at least 30% of the soil surface covered with residue. There are many advantages to this, majorly economic and environmental.
Mulching is a method where the soil surface is covered with decomposable materials (leaves, grass, etc.). This gives benefits like the soil surface is not dried by the sun, moisture is maintained and soil-erosion is prevented. It increases the growth of soil micro-organisms and reduces weed growth.
Composting is a process where micro-organisms decompose organic matter to produce a substance called “compost”. The entire process is natural, given proper water, oxygen and organic material. Making compost turns waster into a profitable resource. It also reduces the need to use inorganic fertilizers.